[ Seeing ] [ Hearing ] [ Engaging ] [ Processing ] [ Responding ] [ Choosing ]
GENDER DIFFERENCES IN HOW BOYS
AND GIRLS "HEAR" THE WORLD
Gender Differences in How Boys
and Girls “Hear” the World
differences are based upon groups and averages. They are not meant to define an
individual. Educators should use gender differences in the same way that they
use information regarding multiple intelligences, learning styles, prior
experiences, human development, etc. Information allows a teacher to better
understand and interpret her or his students.
I do not
conduct research myself. I read texts, reviews, and articles about gender,
gender differences, boys, girls, and education and try to make it accessible to
educators and meaningful within classroom instruction. As such, I have grouped
recent research into six broad differences: Seeing, Hearing, Engaging,
Processing, Responding, and Choosing.
some important points that must be made before moving forward.
differences are not absolute. All boys are not one way and all girls are
not one way.
information should inform educators and they try to better educate students
in coed and single-gender classrooms. Gender is an important within
single-gender classes and coed classes (and with your own children and
girls can be successful with the same activities, learning the same skills,
and understanding the same content. The process of learning may be
different, but not necessarily.
Differences are not deficits.
differences are not set in immutable or unchangeable in individuals.
Experience changes the way our brain is “wired”.
listed below were selected because they all relate to the issue of ears, hearing,
or voice. Educators need not agree with all of these passages, but they should
be aware of recent information on how “hearing” affects the learning of students.
- Across all samples, girls and women showed an advantage over boys and men for accuracy in judging emotion cues on the bases of facial expressions, body posture, and vocal intonation. Male, Female: The Evolution of Human Sex Differences, page 269.
- Boys are more attuned to louder and lower sounds. Teaching the Male Brain Page 37
- Children, especially right-brain children and African American children, particularly African American boys, can learn while moving. Some teachers are concerned about the increased noise level when children move about the room. But children can also learn when there are higher noise levels, especially right-brain learners. Keeping Black Boys Out of Special Education, Page 85.
- Eleven-year old girls are distracted by noise levels about ten times softer than noise levels that boys find distracting. Why Gender Matters Page 18
- Even otoacoustic emissions (audible ‘clicks’ made by the inner ear) differ reliably between the sexes, being both louder and more frequent in female than male adults, children and infants. Cahill, Larry (2006). Nature Reviews Neuroscience
- For the most part, boys are not good auditory learners. Teach boys to take verbatim notes. Provide lecture notes online so that students can incorporate them into their own notes, or you can provide a copy of your lecture notes before the lecture. … Boys tend to acquire information easily through visual methods, particularly if the information involves pictures and graphs rather than words. Teaching the Male Brain Page 43
- Girls’ ears are more sensitive. They can hear softer sounds better than can boys. Conversely, boys have much more tolerance for noise than do girls. Girls can hear higher sounds better than boys and their hearing is sharper. However, boys are better at sound localization. Teaching the Male Brain Page 19
- Given their slight verbal and auditory advantages and, possibly, their stronger social inclination, girls may participate in such exchanges [live talk] more readily. All the more reason to engage your son in conversation from an early age, bathing his brain in the sounds, words, and grammar that will improve his speech and pave the way to better reading and writing skills later in childhood. Pink Brain, Blue Brain, page 71
- It is generally believed that women are more attuned to cues such as facial expression or tone of voice, and this opinion appears to be supported by objective studies. Sex and Cognition, page 89
- The female ear is better able to pick up nuances of voice, music, and other sounds. … They learn to speak earlier and learn languages more quickly. … Women excel at verbal memory and process language faster and more accurately. Brain Based Learning page 95
- This pure tone threshold is lower in women than in men, meaning that their hearing is more sensitive throughout the range of sounds humans can hear, but it is especially marked at frequencies above four thousand cycles per second. Sex and Cognition, page 81
- Women in the study were especially impacted by the noise. Researchers reported an 8 percent loss of productivity in some cases. The noise may be more detrimental to women due to their better hearing, report researchers. The tones emitted are at about a 16 k Hz level: Men rarely hear above 15 k Hz. Brain-Based Learning, Page 69
- Women, however, find noise unpleasantly loud at lower levels of stimulation than men do. Sex and Cognition, page 82
- Baron-Cohen, Simon. (2003). The Essential Difference: The Truth About the Male and Female Brain. New York, NY: Basic Books.
- Belgrave, Faye. (2009). African American Girls: Reframing Perceptions and Changing Experiences. New York, NY: Springer.
- Cahill, L. (2009).
- Cahill, Larry. Nature Reviews Neuroscience | AOP, published online 10 May 2006; doi:10.1038/nrn1909
- Caplan, Paula; Crawford, Mary; Hyde, Janet Shibley; Richardson, John. (1997) Gender Differences in Human Cognition. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
- Deak, JoAnn. (2002) Girls Will Be Girls. Hyperion.
- Ding, Ning. Ph D Dissertation on “Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning and Gender” Rijksuniversteit Groningen, July 2009.
- Eliot, Lise. (2009). Pink Brain, Blue Brain: how small differences grow into troublesome gaps – and what we can do about it. New York, NY: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
- Evans-Winters, Venus. (2005). Teaching Black Girls: Resiliency in Urban Classrooms. New York: NY: Peter Lang.
- Fletcher, Ralph. (2006) Boy Writers. Stenhouse.
- Geary, David. (1998). Male, female: the evolution of human sex differences. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
- Ginsberg, A., Shapiro, J., Brown, S. (2004) Gender in Urban Education. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
- Hall, J. (1984) Nonverbal Sex Differences: Communication Accuracy and Expressive Style. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
- Hanson, Sandra. (2009). Swimming Against the Tide: African American Girls and Science Education. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.
- He Said, She Said By Deborah Tannen , April 2, 2010 http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=he-said-she-said
- Hines, Melissa. (2004) Brain Gender. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
- James, Abigail. (2007) Teaching the Male Brain. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
- Jensen, Eric. (2000) Brain Based Learning. The Brain Store.
- Jensen, Eric. (2000) Learning Smarter. The Brain Store.
- Jensen, Eric. Enriching the Brain.
- Kafele, Baruti K. (2009). Motivating Black Males To Achieve in School and In Life. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
- Kimura, Doreen. (1999) Sex and Cognition. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
- Kunjufu, Jawanza. (2005). Keeping Black Boys Out of Special Education. Chicago, IL: African American Images.
- Maccoby, Eleanor, Ed. (1966) The Development of Sex Differences. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
- Maccoby, Eleanor. (1998) The Two Sexes: Growing Up Apart, Coming Together. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
- Medina, John. Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School. Seattle, WA: Pear Press
- Men Perspire, Women Glow: Men Are More Efficient at Sweating, Study Finds; October 9, 2010 http://www.sciencemagnews.com/men-perspire-women-glow-men-are-more-efficient-at-sweating-study-finds.html
- Mental Health For Teens For Parents Drugs Alcohol Teen Drinking May Result in Permanent Brain Damage April 30, 2010 http://www.teendrugabuse.org/alcohol/teen-drinking-may-result-in-permanent-brain-damage/
- National differences in gender-science stereotypes predict national sex differences in science and math achievement. Nosek, Brian et. Al. PNAS, June 30, 2009. Vol. 106, no. 26. 10593-10597. www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.0809921106
- Navan, Joy L. (2009). Nurturing the Gifted Female: a guide for educators and parents. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
- Newkirk, Thomas. (2002) Misreading Masculinity. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
- Patel (2011) New York Times Magazine, April 17, 2011, pg 41.
- Paul, Dierdre Glen. (2003) Talkin’ Back: Raising and Educating Resilient Black Girls. Westport, CT: Praeger.
- Pinkner, Susan. (2008) The Sexual Paradox: Men, Women, and the Real Gender Gap. New York, NY: Scribner.
- Sex differences in the neural basis of emotional memories. Turhan Canli, John E. Desmond, Zuo Zhao, and John D. E. Gabrieli http://www.pnas.org/content/99/16/10789?related-urls=yes&legid=pnas;99/16/10789
- Pollack, William. (1998) Real Boys. Owl Books.
- Reducing the Gender Achievement Gap in College Science: A Classroom Study of Values Affirmation. Akira Miyake1,*, Lauren E. Kost-Smith2, Noah D. Finkelstein2, Steven J. Pollock2, Geoffrey L. Cohen3 and Tiffany A. Ito1 ; November 2010. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/330/6008/1234.abstract
- Rimm, Sylvia. (1999) See Jane Win: The Rimm Report on How 1,000 Girls Became Successful Women. New York, NY: Crown.
- Sax, Leonard. (2005) Why Gender Matters. New York, NY: Doubleday.
- Sex differences in the neural basis of emotional memories. Canli, Turhan et. Al. PNAS August 6, 2002. Vol 99, No 16. 10789-10794. www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.162356599
- Sex differences in response to red and blue light in human primary visual cortex: a bold fMRI study. Cowan, Ronald, et. al. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging Section 100 (2000) 129 – 138. Page 129.
- Simmons, Rachel. (2002) Odd Girl Out. Harcourt.
- Simmons, Rachel. (2009) The Curse of the Good Girl. New York, NY: Penguin Press.
- Slocumb, Paul. (2004) Boys in Crisis. aha! Process.
- Sousa, David. (2006) How the Brain Learns. Corwin Press.
- Sprague, Marsha & Keeling, Kara. (2007) Discovering their voices: engaging adolescent girls with young adult literature. Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
- Tate, Marcia. (2003) Worksheets Don’t Grow Dendrites.
- Tatum, Alfred. (2005) Teaching Reading to Black Adolescent Males: Closing the Achievement Gap. Portland, ME: Stenhouse Publishers.
- Teens prefer texts to phone calls, emails: study by QMI Agency, Toronto Sun; April 21, 2010. http://www.torontosun.com/news/world/2010/04/21/13669061.html
- Under Threat, Women Bond, Men Withdraw, By Ingrid Wickelgren, April 19, 2010. http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=under-threat-women-bond&print=true
- Wiseman, Rosalind. (2002). Queen Bees & Wannabes. New York, NY: Three Rivers Press.
- Women Experience More Chronic Pain Than Men, Research Finds, August 12, 2011. http://www.businessweek.com/lifestyle/content/healthday/641942.html
- Wynn, Mychael. (1992). Empowering African-American Males to Succeed. Marietta, GA: Rising Sun Publishing.